Medical Journal Articles and/or Research Articles

Disclaimer: The views presented in the following resources are not necessarily the views of the Birth Control Institute. This list of resources is provided to assist those who desire to do further research.

Coste, Job-Spira, Fernandez, Papiernik, & Spira. “Risk Factors for Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study in France, with Special Focus on Infectious Factors.” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 133 No. 9, May 1, 1991 p. 839-849. *shows better prevention of IUP than ectopic pregnancy. (Larimore cites 1390% increase)

Job-Spira N, Fernandez H, Coste J, Papiernik E, Spira A, “Risk of Chlamydia PID and oral contraceptives,” J Am Med Assoc 1990; 264:2072-4.

Larimore, Stanford. “Postfertilization Effects of Oral Contraceptives and Their Relationship to Informed Consent.” Arch Fam Med Vol 9, Feb 2000 p. 126-133. Abstract available at:

Rossmanith, Steffens, & Schramm. “A Comparative Randomized Trial on the Impact of Two Low-Dose Oral Contraceptives on Ovarian Activity, Cervical Permeability, and Endometrial Receptivity.” Contraception 1997; 56:23-30. (showed no ovulations in 349 cycles of women on COCs; mentions decreased endometrial receptivity)

De Irala, Lopez del Burgo, Lopez de Fez, Arredondo, Mikolajczyk, Stanford. Women’s attitudes towards mechanisms of action of family planning methods: survey in primary health centres in Pamplona, Spain.

Kahlenborn, Stanford, Larimore, “Postfertilization effect of hormonal emergency contraception.” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy: Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 465-470. Abstract available at:

Mol, Ankum, Bossuyt, & Van der Veen. “Contraception and the Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis.” Contraception. 1995; 52:337-341.

“A multinational case-control study of ectopic pregnancy.” The World Health Organization’s Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction: Task Force on Intrauterine Devices for Fertility Regulation. Clin Reprod Fertil. 1985 Jun; 3(2):131-43.

“Biologic Activity of OC Components.” In: Managing Contraceptive Pill Patients. Ed. 3. Durant, OK. Creative Informatics, 1983.

Links to Other Websites/Articles – brochure on Does the Pill Cause Abortions? “Emergency Contraception and Early Abortion” (has various articles relating to Emergency Contraception) Focus on the Family’s Position Statement on Hormonal Contraception. The Links between Plan B and the Pill. Interview with Albert Mohler. A Hard Pill to Swallow. By Agnieszka Tennant. “Do Oral Contraceptives Cause Abortions?” By James P. Johnston. Association of Prolife Physicians. Resources about NaPro Technology (Natural Procreative Technology). See the link to to find a NaPro Technology Medical Consultant in your region. Canadian Federation for Sexual Health. (Information about the Birth Control Pill and how it works.) “How does the combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) work?”

Websites for Specific Oral Contraceptives (type in oral contraceptives and/or specific name of drug) (Barr Laboratories) ( in Canada) (Physicians labeling for Tri-Cyclen – American) (for product database; search for Necon, Reclipsen, Mononessa, Lutera, Jolivette (POP), Ogestrel) (Alesse – American prescribing information) (Canadian Monograph) (Canadian Pharmacy guide – includes Marvelon) (both Product Monographs and Patient Information are available on this site; click on the name of the product, e.g. Triquilar; note the differences in information provided under Clinical Pharmacology in the Product Monograph compared to the Patient Information regarding how the Pill works) (Product Monographs available – click on the name of the product, e.g. Tri-Cyclen).


Alcorn, Randy. “Does the Birth Control Pill Cause Abortions?” Eternal Perspective Ministries, Sandy, OR; revised 2004.

Hilgers, Thomas W. “The Medical & Surgical Practice of NaPro Technology.” 2004

(In the section regarding potencies of various natural and artificial hormones, this text book references:
Kina RJB, Whitehead MI: Assessment of the Potency of Oral Administered Progestins in Women. Fertility & Sterility 46:1062, 1986.)

Mercedes Arzu Wilson, “Natural Family Planning. Love & Fertility.” Family of Americas Foundation, Dunkirk, MD; 2006.

John Frederic Kilner, PH.D. (Editor), W David Hager, M.D. (Editor), Paige C Cunningham (Editor). “The Reproduction Revolution: A Christian Appraisal of Sexuality, Reproductive Technologies, and the Family.” Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2000.

Speroff, L. & P. D. Darney, A Clinical Guide for Contraception. 4th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA: 2005.